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#2868 Notorious ‘JK’ business exploits troubled high school girls for sex [高校・大学生のためのJT記事]

  "悪名高いJKビジネスが問題を抱える女子高生を売春で食いものにしている"

 JKビジネスがなにか知らない人が多いだろう、ネットでも調べてみた。
-----------------------------------
制服姿の女子高生らに男性客を接客させる「JKビジネス」が、東京・秋葉原などの繁華街で広がり続けている。「お散歩」「占い」「カウンセリング」を表看板に、業者は取り締まりを巧妙に逃れており、性的サービスを求める男性客が絶えない。親の虐待や貧困が背景にあるとして、少女らの悩みを受け止めようとする若者たちも現れた。
・・・客の多くが持ちかけるのが「裏オプション」だと、少女らの相談を続ける若者による市民団体「女子高生サポートセンター・コラボ」の仁藤夢乃さん(24)は説明する。「手をつなぐ」「ほっぺにチュー」「身体を触らせる」―それぞれ数千円の値段が付く「裏オプ」。客によるレイプや暴力被害の訴えも多い。・・・
http://www.47news.jp/47topics/e/257008.php
-----------------------------------

 11月4日付ジャパンタイムズ紙の記事を紹介する。JKビジネスなんてどうやら根室には関係のなさそうな話題であるが、都会の風俗がどう変りつつあるのかは知っておいてもいい。
 女子高生はおじさんたちとお散歩するだけで数千円が稼げてしまうから、つい誘いに乗ってバイトを始めるかもしれない。入り口はお散歩でも、一歩中に入ると簡単に売春へつながっている。簡単に稼げる味を覚えたら、もう汗水流して働くのがばかばかしくなる、それが怖い。
  こどもたちは地元の高校を卒業した後、就職や進学でこういう危険のある都会へ出て行く。都会にはJKビジネスの他に専門学校生や大学生が対象のさまざまな風俗ビジネスがある、要注意だ。

 女子高生のみなさんは辞書を引いて一生懸命に読んで実態を知ってもらいたい。友人のいない孤独な人がこうしたビジネスに嵌りやすいのだそうだ。英文記事のほうにも仁藤夢乃さんという活動家へのインタビューが載っている。日本語のJKビジネスの解説と英文記事は内容が重なる部分が多いので、それをガイドにして読んだらいい。

(今後は段落の半分以上訳や解説をつけたものはカテゴリー「公開時事英語授業」に、それ以下のものは「高校・大学生のためのJT記事」あるいは「Article Selction」に分類しようと思う。)

http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2014/11/04/national/social-issues/notorious-jk-business-exploits-troubled-high-school-girls-sex/
===============================

Notorious ‘JK’ business exploits troubled high school girls for sex

Seventeen-year-old Momo shrugs and says she was aware of the dangers when she decided to join other girls in Tokyo’s Akihabara district handing out racy fliers to male passers-by and flashing them coquettish smiles.

The schoolgirl knew men would occasionally try to talk her into sexual activities. She even knew that she might be assaulted.

Nonetheless, she willingly put herself in harm’s way. With a wry smile, Momo said if a rapist had attacked her, she wouldn’t have minded.

“I was so depressed at the time that I didn’t mind (being raped) if that’s what a guy needed me for,” said Momo, who asked to be identified by a pseudonym rather than her real name.

“I was desperate. And if sex was all it took to make me stop feeling so worthless, I thought I was game for anything.”

Momo is among the schoolgirls whom experts warn are prone to gravitate toward the notorious “JK” business — JK being short for “joshi kosei” (high school girls) — rampant in Akihabara and other parts of central Tokyo.

Even though police have cracked down in recent years, experts say the shady part-time job industry featuring high school girls remains a hotbed of teen exploitation and sex trafficking. And the traffickers, ever wary of law enforcement, appear to be changing their tactics to stay one step ahead of the police.

The JK business has variants, including JK “rifure” (reflexology), where the girls give massages and lie next to their clients, and JK “osanpo” (tour guide), where the girls stroll with customers as if on a date.

But be it massaging or sauntering, the men often exploit their privacy with the girls to pressure them for sex or outright assault them, experts say.

In an annual report on trafficking released in June, the U.S. State Department cited JK osanpo for the first time as it slammed Japan for child prostitution.

“Sophisticated and organized prostitution networks target vulnerable Japanese women and girls in public areas such as subways, popular youth hangouts, schools and online,” the report says.

In January 2013, Tokyo police raided 17 JK rifure parlors in pursuit of alleged violations of the labor standards law.

The following April, they began to take girls who work at such establishments into custody to persuade them to quit the industry.

Last December, police started rounding up girls who engaged in osanpo.

In response to the heightened police surveillance, traffickers who hire the girls have changed tactics to make their business look more innocuous.

Instead of asking male passers-by if they want a massage or to take a stroll, many girls distributing fliers now say their job is simply to “chat” with the men, or, bizarre as it may sound, “tell their fortune” in a cafe-like setting.

But even those purportedly harmless pursuits lead to child prostitution, according to Yumeno Nito, a 24-year-old activist who runs Colabo, a support group that helps to rehabilitate exploited teenage girls.

“Granted, it’s not like there are actual sexual activities going on in those places,” she said, but men go there with the aim of meeting girls and exchanging contact information so they can later meet elsewhere and negotiate for sex directly.

“So in a way, tightened regulations made a (sexual) exchange between the girls and customers more private and therefore harder to detect,” Nito said.

In the latest development, two men were reportedly arrested in October for running what they touted as a JK “komyu” (communications) parlor in Tokyo’s Takadanobaba district. Despite its name, it invited customers to help the girls change into bathing suits and then sniff them.

Since founding Colabo in 2011 while still in college, Nito said she has encountered many girls in the industry who have been sexually victimized while working.

“Some men forcibly undress or kiss them, but that’s not the worst. Some girls are raped. One girl was even tied up sadomasochistic-style as photographs were taken,” she said.

“Unlike professional hostesses in the adult entertainment business, these girls are still naive in a way that they, for example, recoil in fear when guys try to touch them. The men apparently find this kind of naive reaction a turn-on.”

A former high school dropout herself, Nito said most girls who get into the JK business do it because they feel isolated and have few people they can trust. Others are drawn to it for money for college, or out of curiosity.

But the girls in the business by and large have poor human relationships and feel neglected both at home and at school, thus taking emotional refuge in the backstreet industry, Nito noted.

“These girls are in a way homeless. They have a physical house, yes, but they have no home where they can build actual human bonds,” she said.

Momo is a case in point. She lives with her mother, who suffers extreme mood swings, and Momo has been diagnosed with schizophrenia. She said she has few friends at school and once tried to kill herself with a drug overdose.

“It’s not like I joined the industry just out of curiosity. I wanted to know if there is really somebody out there who needs me, even if it’s just sexually,” she said.

One of Momo’s few friends, 15-year-old Kaori, has a similar story.

She said she was in the throes of despair and loneliness when she and Momo together signed papers to join one of the most notorious JK komyu parlors in Akihabara in early October. Like Momo, Kaori asked to be identified only by a pseudonym.

Kaori’s parents divorced when she was a child. “I was in a dark place,” she said, and has lived with her father since the split.

“My dad is rarely at home, always busy with his work. And he doesn’t seem to notice me. So I thought, if I got into some trouble by engaging in this sort of shady business — like being taken into police custody or something — then he will finally begin to pay attention to me.”

She said she feels her teachers at school are avoiding her, and with a resigned tone acknowledged she has no adults around her with whom she can have a heart-to-heart talk.

Both girls said they doubt they could work normal part-time jobs because of having to turn up at a set time. The thought of that, they said, makes them panic.

Many JK parlors allow girls to show up for work whenever they feel like it, or at least so they claim in online recruitment ads.

“I feel many girls in the industry are in one way or another mentally depressed,” Nito said. “And just when they’re so disappointed with their inability to engage in shift work, they realize the JK business offers a very flexible working style. That’s how they’re drawn to it.”

Nito believes rampant child prostitution in the JK business will not die out unless both the facilitators and customers are punished.

“The traffickers run their businesses in a way that keeps them just within the law. So it’s hard to bust them,” said Kosei Uchida, the Tokyo police officer in charge of the section that addresses the well-being of adolescents, in a statement delivered by fax.

Likewise, lawyer Kozue Hattori said police usually do not move against male customers for alleged sex with minors unless there is a compelling case — such as when a girl reports being sexually assaulted, when parents file a report and when girls are found during a raid.

“It’s true some (sexual offense) cases are not investigated and end up in a void,” said Hattori, whose clients include men accused of sex with minors.

She said she believes the girls are not entirely blameless: When lawyers meet the girls to discuss an out-of-court settlement, the victims sometimes say they wish the man had never been arrested as it represents a loss of their “cash cow.”

But Nito said adults must shoulder the blame.

“You might think the girls are to blame for selling their bodies,” she said. “But the girls are teens who are still too immature to understand the gravity of what they’re doing. The guys, on the other hand, are grown-ups. They should know what they’re doing. There is a huge difference.”
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#2842 エボラ出血熱1-1: 'The worsening ebola crisis' Oct. 18, 2014 [高校・大学生のためのJT記事]

 エボラ出血熱の二次感染患者の数が増えている。患者の治療にあたっている看護師が感染し米国に空輸され治療を受けている。米国内で治療中にも二次感染者がでている。
 三次感染患者も出始めたからヨーロッパと米国は大騒ぎだ。空気感染はないが、接触による感染はある。どの程度の接触で感染するのか具体的で適切な説明がない。他の感染症と比べて感染力がどの程度強いのかについても充分な情報がない。
 ニューヨークタイムズ紙のエボラ出血熱に関する社説記事を紹介する。興味のある高校生や大学生はURLを表示してあるので、ダウンロードして読めばいい。

 患者の血液や体液に触れなければ大丈夫だという説明がなされているが、どうもそうではなさそうだ。WHOによれば致死率は70%。
 いくつか検索してみたら、感染力についての説明を見つけた。エイズウィルスよりは感染力がずっと強いようだ。ここには書いていないが飛沫感染の可能性がある、セキやクシャミで唾液が飛ぶから、空気感染しないにしても飛沫感染することは頭に置いたおいたほうがいい。液状のものを直接吸い込まない限り大丈夫なのだろう。飛沫感染と空気感染、なんだかぎりぎりのところになると境界域が定かではなくなりそうだ。とくに込んだ電車の中では・・・。国内にエボラ患者が出たら電車に乗るときはマスク着用ということになりそうだ。

 「エボラウイルスは、感染者の体液に直接接触することでうつる。性交渉やキスはもちろん、汗や唾などに触れるだけでもリスクはある。発症者が座った便座に座っただけでもうつる可能性はあり、エイズウイルスよりも感染力はずっと強い。ただ、デング熱のように蚊が媒介することはない」
*http://www.zakzak.co.jp/society/foreign/news/20141017/frn1410171201004-n1.htm

「リベリア人男性を治療した米南部テキサス州ダラスの病院で女性看護師2人への院内感染とその疑いが立て続けに判明し、米国内で一気に不安が広がった。」

 防護服を着用している看護師が二次感染していることから、医療現場がエボラ出血熱のような感染症治療に不慣れであるようだ。防護服着脱のマニュアルもないし、充分な準備やトレーニングがなされていない。
 頻繁に着替えるから、現場は使用済みの防護服が山積みになったまま放置されているような状況だ。設備・用具をそろえることと、治療にあたる者たちの防護服着脱トレーニングが必要だ。おしっこする場合にだって脱がなければならないし、そのあとまた新しい防護服を着なければならないから、現場はたいへんだ。汚染ごみの山が瞬く間にできる。

 シエラレオネでは病院のベッドが不足しており家族が介護しているが、防護服はもとよりグローブ(手袋)などの感染防護用品がぜんぜん間に合わない。国際的な援助の手が差し伸べられなくてはならない。

 西アフリカ各地で治療にあたっている医師や看護師が使用する防護服やグローブなどの資材が圧倒的に不足している。その上に医療従事者は隔離病棟のベッドもまるで足りない状況下に置かれている。
But the aid has been slow to reach the front lines, leaving health care workers with too few treatment beds to accommodate the sick.

 ようやく米国政府が動き出したようだが、おそすぎた。すでに感染爆発(outobleak)はとめられない。世界中が協力して対処しなくてはならない。
  それぞれ国内ではこういう強い感染力と高い致死率をもった感染症には不慣れだから、医療応援部隊を送り出す前に3週間程度のトレーニングプログラムが必要だ。そうでないといたずらに二次感染者や三次感染者を増やすことになりかねない。

 SARS騒ぎのときにもそうだったが、厄介なのは潜伏期間である。空港で検査しても潜伏期間で症状がなければパスしてしまう。潜伏期間は1~3週間であるから、感染爆発は防ぎようがなく、アウトブレイクを前提に対策をとる段階にある。日本へももうじき上陸するだろう。

 この社説は「米国でエボラウィルスが感染爆発を起こす可能性は小さい」と主張している。
That said, the risk that the Ebola virus might cause outbreaks in this country remains small.

 アウトブレイクが経済にどのような影響を及ぼすのかよくわからない。人の移動制限をする国が増えるとどういうことになるのか、貿易や国内経済への影響を注視しなければならない。
 肝心の経済産業大臣は政治資金規正法違反でてんてこ舞いだから、とてもエボラ出血熱まで思いが回らないだろう。女性登用はいいけれど、力の程をわきまえないと情けないことになる。もっとも、男の大臣達だって過去にはたくさんの不祥事の例があるから、女性の新任大臣ばかりをいじめるわけにはいかぬ。

 人と物の移動が頻繁になされる経済のグローバリズム化は、エボラ出血熱ののように感染力が強く致死率が高い感染症のアウトブレイクというリスクを伴う。
 江戸時代の日本のように鎖国している国であれば、こうしたリスクを小さくできるが、貿易は制限できても人の移動まではコントロールできない。グローバリズムや国際観光もほどほどにした方がよさそうだ。ここでも人間の欲望のコントロールが重要な役割を果たすことになるのだろう。

■ 小欲知足


10月15日ニューヨークタイムズ紙より
http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/14/opinion/the-worsening-ebola-crisis.html#
==============================
Recent days have brought two alarming developments in the struggle to contain Ebola. The campaign against the epidemic in West Africa, the only sure way to prevent the spread of the virus to the United States and other countries, fell even further behind. And the discovery that a nurse treating an Ebola patient in Dallas had herself become infected despite wearing protective gear raised questions about the readiness of American hospitals to deal with Ebola patients.

Reassuring statements by health officials that virtually any hospital with an isolation unit could treat such patients now look rashly optimistic.

That said, the risk that the Ebola virus might cause outbreaks in this country remains small. By far the greater danger lies in the very real possibility that the virus will continue to spiral out of control in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone and spread from there to other parts of Africa or other continents, opening a wider range of pathways for infected people to reach the United States.

Many countries and international organizations, led by the United States, have pledged money, equipment and manpower to fight the epidemic in West Africa. But the aid has been slow to reach the front lines, leaving health care workers with too few treatment beds to accommodate the sick.

In Sierra Leone, on Friday, health officials — facing just such a shortage of beds — adopted a new policy of having families treat patients in their homes by distributing painkillers, rehydrating solutions and gloves to hundreds of Ebola-afflicted households. But if a nurse in Dallas, clothed in protective garments, could not escape infection, it is hard to believe that less well-equipped households in Sierra Leone will be able to escape contamination from an Ebola patient in their midst.

The pace of international aid needs to be stepped up dramatically. This is not a task that can be left to such nongovernmental organizations as Doctors Without Borders, which has heroically provided much, if not most, of the care in the stricken countries. The United States has taken the lead in providing aid to Liberia, a country with long ties to the United States.

The Army has started deploying thousands of troops to the area to help build new treatment centers, perform laboratory tests and train health care workers in how to treat patients, but most of that help has yet to arrive. It was thus disheartening to hear Maj. Gen. Darryl Williams, the commander of the United States Army Africa, dismiss criticism that American aid had been “too little, too late” with the excuse that the Pentagon

The United States’ obligation is greater than that; President Obama needs personally to ramp up the urgency of the American response and the level and speed of the resources provided.

Perhaps the Dallas case will add urgency to those efforts to control the epidemic abroad. The case is not cause for domestic panic, but it is cause for greater vigilance among health care workers. Even without knowing fully what happened with the nurse, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is exploring ways to make it easier to don protective gear, wear it while treating a patient and take it off afterward without infecting oneself.

The task of treating Ebola patients can clearly be carried out by experienced personnel. Five Ebola patients were flown back to the United States from West Africa and have been treated safely at specially designated hospitals in Atlanta and Omaha. But the Dallas hospital made mistakes in handling this case from the start, and the infected nurse was reportedly a young graduate of a nursing program with little experience in infectious diseases. It seems possible that additional health care workers who cared for the patient will come down sick as well.

The C.D.C. is urging all hospitals, no matter how small, to take travel histories to identify any patients who have been in West Africa within the past 21 days, and immediately place those with Ebola-like symptoms in isolation. The C.D.C. plans to increase its training efforts for hospital personnel, a vital need given that a survey of nurses found a vast majority had received no instructions from their hospitals on how to deal with Ebola. Smaller hospitals will probably have to transfer any Ebola patients to more specialized centers for treatment.

But all of these efforts, however useful, pale against this country’s much larger responsibility to help defeat the disease at its source.
==============================

CDC:疾病対策予防センター


*#2842 エボラ出血熱1-1: 'The worsening ebola crisis' Oct. 18, 2014 
http://nimuorojyuku.blog.so-net.ne.jp/2014-10-17-1

 #2843 エボラ出血熱1-2 :'The worsening ebola crisis' Oct.19, 2014 
http://nimuorojyuku.blog.so-net.ne.jp/2014-10-18

 #2844 エボラ出血熱2-1 :'Spain case shows holes in plans to treat Ebola' Oct.19, 2014  
http://nimuorojyuku.blog.so-net.ne.jp/2014-10-19

 #2846 エボラ出血熱2-2 :'Spain case shows holes in plans to treat Ebola' Oct.19, 2014 
http://nimuorojyuku.blog.so-net.ne.jp/2014-10-19-2

 #2847 エボラ出血熱2-3 :'Spain case shows holes in plans to treat Ebola' Oct.21, 2014 
http://nimuorojyuku.blog.so-net.ne.jp/2014-10-20

 #2848 エボラ出血熱2-4 :国内の体制はどうなっている? Oct.22, 2014  
http://nimuorojyuku.blog.so-net.ne.jp/2014-10-22-1

 #2852 エボラ出血熱3-1 ' Cuba's impressive role on Ebola '   Oct. 27, 2014 
http://nimuorojyuku.blog.so-net.ne.jp/2014-10-26



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#2814 簡単そうで・・・'In the wake of floods, Kashimirs rail at India'   Sep. 20, 2014 [高校・大学生のためのJT記事]

 9月17日付け'International New York Times'の一面の見出しは次のようになっていた、訳してみてほしい。

 In the wake of floods, Kashimirs rail at India

 インドのカシミール地方で大洪水が発生し、一週間たったあとの写真が一緒に掲載されている。ついでだから写真のキャプションも書いておく。

 Carrying drinking water to flood victims in Srinagar, Kashmir. Residents are spuring Indian government aid as too little and too late, a week after floods devastated the region.

  川からあふれ出た泥水の中を膝上まで浸かりながらペットボトルの飲料水をネットに入れて背負って歩いている男の後姿が写っている。

 wakeは'wake up'で見慣れた単語だが、ここでは動詞として使われていない、定冠詞theがあるから名詞である。
 in the wake of floodsは#2811でも出てきたから、拾ってみよう。

(2)  While the move is billed as a response to the severe shortage of doctors in Tohoku in the wake of the March 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, care needs to be taken so that opening the new school does not drain the already stretched staffing at hospitals in many parts of the region.

 こちらの方が文脈から読み取れるのでわかりやすい。「2011年3月の東北大震災の結果として生じた
 billについて#2811でコメントし忘れたかもしれないので書いておく。2冊の英和辞典にはこの用法が載っていなかった。ハードカバーのCollins English Dictionaryには載っていた。(あとで#2811にも追記しておく)

-----------------------------------
bill something as something
phrasal verb
to advertise or describe something in a particular way:
(特定の方法で'何か-1'を'何か-2'として宣伝するあるいは述べる)

The castle bills itself as the oldest in England.
 (その城は英国で一番古いと自称している)
Longman
*http://www.ldoceonline.com/dictionary/bill_2

-----------------------------------

  wakeを引くとLongman online辞書では品詞ごとに選択肢が示され、名詞をクリックすると一番最初にこの熟語がでてくる。
-----------------------------------
wake2 [countable]
1

in the wake of something

if something, especially something bad, happens in the wake of an event, it happens afterwards and usually as a result of it:
「なにかあること、とくに何か悪いことがある出来事のあとに生じる場合に、その何かが後で起きかつ通常はその何かの結果として生じる」

Famine followed in the wake of the drought.
 (旱魃が起きればその後に飢饉が襲う)
*http://www.ldoceonline.com/dictionary/wake_2

-----------------------------------
 じつに明解でわかりやすい定義だ。wakeは名詞では通常はこのような前置詞句として使われる頻度が大きいのだろう。
 ついでに『ジーニアス4版』をみると、wake-1には「通夜、前夜祭」、wake-2に「航跡、(人・物が)通った跡」となっている。wakeの動詞が「目を覚ます」から聖人の通夜が復活も意味するからなんとなく関連のあることがわかるが、wake-2はebisuには連想ができない。わからないときは辞書に聞くしかない、学習にはそういう素直な姿勢が役に立つのである。

 次の問題なのが、railだ、これを「鉄道」と訳したらアウト。Kashmirisがrailしているのだから、railは動詞だ。

 9月15日のJT紙にはわかりやすい見出しがついている。
 India's flood response angers Kasmiris.
 「洪水へのインド政府の対応がカシミール人を怒らせている」

 railは「(きつい調子で)非難する」「罵る」「抗議する」という意味である。

 教訓: わかっている単語ほど注意しなければならない場合もたまにはある
  (実際の英文は「ユメタン」の丸暗記だけでは対処できない単語の用例が随所に出てくるからご用心)

 さて、原文と拙訳を例示しておく。もちろん、わたしのものは脇においてもっとよい日本語を考えてくれたらいい。

 In the wake of floods, Kashimirs rail at India
 (洪水の跡にカシミールに住む人々はインド(政府)を罵っている)

 JT紙の記事のほうはネットで検索できるので、インドの大洪水に興味がある人は記事のショートカットを貼り付けておくので、ご覧ください。
---------------------------------
floods | The Japan Times
www.japantimes.co.jp/tag/floods/

State's flood response angers Kashmiris. Residents of Indian Kashmir turned
their wrath on state administrators, accusing them of failing to provide them with
help after the worst flooding in over a century, and angrily dumped food parcels
into ...

---------------------------------


 武田邦彦教授がブログで世間で異常気象と言っているのは間違いで、数十年に一度どこかで生ずる程度の気象現象だから、それがどこかで起きるのは当たり前と主張している。それは当たり前の気象現象で、けっして異常な気象現象ではないと至極まともなことを仰っています。

*「局地的大雨」は異常気象ではない・・・
http://takedanet.com/2014/09/post_2bf6.html


<余談-1>
 学習の参考になるかならぬかよくわからないが、高校生と大学生のために生成文法的な(シンプル・センテンスへの)分解例を提示しておく。意味が通じる程度に、必要な部分に分けるだけでいい。あまりやりすぎると、意味をつかむという当初の目的から離れてしまう。ほどほどでいいのだ。
 デカルトは『方法序説』「科学の方法」の中で「必要な小部分に分解せよ」と指示している。これは学問に共通する原則で、数学でも重要だ。問題が複雑だと思ったら、必要な範囲でいくつかに分解してみたらいい、特に複合問題はそうすることでシンプルな問題に還元*できる。

(2)  While the move is billed as a response to the severe shortage of doctors in Tohoku in the wake of the March 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, care needs to be taken so that opening the new school does not drain the already stretched staffing at hospitals in many parts of the region.

①  They bill the move as a response to the severe shortage of doctors in Tohoku in the wake of the March 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake.

②  They need to take care.

③  (so that) opening the new school does not drain the staffing.

④  The already stretched staffing (is or works) at hospitals in many parts of the region.

 staffing:人員数、人員の配置
 theyは何を指すのかなど、個々の文の内容は各自よく見て考えてもらいたい、そこが勉強かもしれない。

*還元主義:(哲学用語) 事物を元素やアトムにまで分解して理解すれば全体が理解できるというもの。ギリシア自然哲学が元だろう。デカルトのそれは分解するだけでなく、そのあとに総合の作業がまっている。「還元⇒総合」の過程を通してものごとの全体がとらえられる。
 マルクスも『資本論』の概念体系構成でそういう作業をしている。経済学諸概念でもっとも基本的なもの(抽象的人間労働=商品価値)を体系の端緒に措定して、それを「単純流通関係⇒生産関係⇒国内市場関係⇒世界市場関係」で演繹的に定義して、総合を試みている。
(実はマルクス経済学は学の端緒に措定した基本概念に根本的な欠陥がある。人間労働は質的に同一な労働には還元できないことは、名人の仕事と半端職人の仕事を比べてみたらすぐに諒解できる。半端職人の仕事ではいくら時間を掛けても名人と同じ仕事になならないことは誰でもわかることだろう。わたしは職人仕事を経済学の端緒においてまったく異なる経済学が成立することを示した。21世紀の経済学は職人仕事を学の端緒に措定して新たに記述されるべきだ。弊ブログのカテゴリー「経済学ノート」に書き溜めているが、いずれまとめてブログで公開する機会を得たい。)
*「還元主義」ウィキペディアより
http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E9%82%84%E5%85%83%E4%B8%BB%E7%BE%A9


<余談-2:ネット英英辞書は何がいいか?>
 いくつかネット辞書を引いてみたが、Longmanがわかりやすい。品詞別に検索リストが提示されるところがわたしには使いやすかった。


 ときどき引くこの辞書にはbillの句動詞が載っていなかった、でもいい辞書だ。25年も前に出版されたのに、語の定義の仕方が現在のLongmanと同じだ。「if~、XXX」方式で定義している。

Collins Cobuild Phrasal Verbs Dictionary

Collins Cobuild Phrasal Verbs Dictionary

  • 作者:
  • 出版社/メーカー: Collins CoBUILD
  • 発売日: 2012/09/27
  • メディア: ペーパーバック



にほんブログ村 地域生活(街) 北海道ブログ 根室情報へ
にほんブログ村

#2810 Indian leader arrives for summit Sep. 15, 2014 [高校・大学生のためのJT記事]

 風が冷たい、すっかり秋だ。9時半の気温は14.4度。市長選挙の喧騒が終わって静けさが戻ってきた。今夜は時事英語授業の教材をとりあげるが、半分は仕事をやっているようなもの。(笑)

  8月31日のJT紙に一面に掲載された記事である。7枚ほどの中から高3の生徒が選んだ記事だ。興味のある記事の方が熱心に読める。傍から見ていて集中力の上がっているのがはっきり見てとれた。無味乾燥な内容の教科書を読まされて英語に興味をもてない生徒はジャパンタイムズ記事のなかから好きなものを選んで読んだらいい。

 
http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2014/08/31/national/politics-diplomacy/indian-leader-arrives-summit/
============================

by Masaaki Kameda


<高校生はコピーしてWORDで貼り付けて利用してください>
 利用の便のために段落番号を付してあります。

Indian leader Modi arrives for summit with Abe

(1)  Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi arrived at Kansai International Airport on Saturday for a five-day visit in which he is expected to seek stronger security and economic ties with Japan in the face of China’s rising territorial ambitions and military might.

(2)  Calling Japan and India “two major maritime democracies in Asia,” government officials in Tokyo said Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, 59, and Modi 63, are expected to affirm their willingness to cooperate to ensure a “peaceful and stable maritime order” to curb Beijing’s increasing activity in the East and South China seas, as well as the Indian Ocean.

(3)  During the visit, Modi is scheduled to hold a summit on Monday with Abe, whom he has met twice in his previous visits to Japan in 2007 and 2012. The two sides are likely to agree to launch a consultative framework for security talks involving their foreign and defense ministers, a senior Foreign Ministry official said.

(4)  Abe and Modi are also expected to agree to continue joint maritime drills in addition to trilateral drills conducted with the United States, possibly on a regular basis.

(5)  Since Japan is the first country Modi chose to visit on a bilateral basis since taking office in May, this indicates “his high expectations for Japan,” a Foreign Ministry official said.

(6)  Abe and Modi are expected to strengthen security ties by upgrading their bilateral dialogue on diplomacy and defense to the ministerial level. The talks are currently conducted at a vice-ministerial level.

(7)  Another issue on the defense agenda is a plan for Japan to supply India with its US-2 amphibian search and rescue aircraft, a deal the two nations have been discussing since last December. The Abe administration eased the nation’s long-held ban on weapons exports, including technology transfers, in April.

(8)  China has been challenging Japan’s sovereignty over the Senkaku Islands, a group of uninhabited islets in the East China Sea that are being administered by Tokyo but are claimed by Beijing as Diaoyu and by Taiwan as Tiaoyutai.

 Diaoyu:釣魚島

(9)  India, meanwhile, has grown concerned about China’s expanding presence in the Indian Ocean, as well as their long-standing border disputes and Beijing’s growing ties with Pakistan.

(10)  On infrastructure, Abe will likely try to pitch Japan’s shinkansen technology for India’s plan to build a high-speed railway between Mumbai and Ahmedabad.

(11)  On the more touchy issue of atomic energy, however, the two leaders are expected to have trouble signing an accord on peaceful use of nuclear power because Japan wants nonproliferation guarantees. While the deal would pave the way for Japan to export nuclear reactors, Tokyo wants it to specify that the deal can be suspended if New Delhi conducts nuclear weapons tests.

(12)  India is not a member of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.

(13)  Abe and Modi will likely agree to jointly produce rare earth metals for export to Japan, allowing its manufacturers to reduce their reliance on China for the strategically important minerals, which are needed for making high-tech products ranging from hybrid cars to mobile phones.

(14)  Modi, as an official guest of state, is also slated to meet with Emperor Akihito on Tuesday, visit historical sites in Kyoto and give lectures in Tokyo.

(15)  Modi was sworn in as prime minister in May after a general election in which his Bharatiya Janata Party gained an outright majority in India’s lower house of parliament. He was elected chief minister of Gujarat state in western India in 2001 and received high praise for economic policies that promoted development and growth in the state.

(16)  Before he left India, Modi sent out a series of tweets in English about his hopes for the summit.

(17)  “I see the Japan visit as an opportunity to take our ties with Japan to a new level & increase cooperation in various fields,” Modi tweeted on Tuesday.

(18)  In another, he added: “Japan’s friendship with India is time tested. We are 2 vibrant democracies committed to advancing peace & prosperity in the world.”

(19)  Modi also reckoned he was looking forward to meeting Abe, tweeting: “Am particularly excited to meet PM AbeShinzo. I deeply respect his leadership & enjoy a warm relationship with him from previous meetings.”

(20)  Modi then subsequently re-sent his messages after having them translated into Japanese.

(21)  “Friends from Japan asked me to talk to the people of Japan directly in Japanese. I also thank them for helping with the translation,” Modi explained.

(22)  Using English, Abe tweeted back: “India has a special place in my heart. I am eagerly waiting for your arrival in Kyoto this weekend.”

(23)  “Your first visit to Japan as Indian PM will add a new chapter to our strategic partnership,” Abe added. “Together we can do a lot for peace and prosperity in the world.”

============================


<つまみ食い解説>

 インド首相のモーディ氏が安倍総理と会談するために8月30日日本(関西空港)へ到着。
 インドと日本は対中国政策で手を組むにはアジアでお互いに最強のパートナーだ。パキスタンと中国が手を組んでいるから、インド洋に中国海軍が進出してくる。日本は中国と尖閣列島でもめて(dispute)いる。
 インドはムンバイとアーメダバードを結ぶ高速鉄道網建設を予定している。安倍総理は新幹線を売り込みたい。原発も売り込みたいのだが、日本は核拡散防止の保証がほしい、インドは原子力平和利用に関する協定(accord)に難色を示しそうだ。。日本側はインドが核実験をすれば協定が棚上げ(the deal can be suspended)になることを協定に明記したい。そういうわけで、今回結ばれる協定(the deal)で原発輸出ができるかどうかは微妙だ。
 インド首相は国賓だから、天皇にも拝謁する予定になっている。京都の史跡へも訪問を予定している。モーディ氏へ今回の日本への訪問がインドと日本にさまざまな分野での協力関係を結ぶための好機であり二カ国は世界平和と繁栄を推進するアジアで元気な2大民主主義国家であるとツィッターで「つぶやいて」いる。モーディ氏は英語で書かれたツィッターを日本語に訳して日本国民に向けて発信した。安倍総理も英文で返信のツィートをしている。なかなかお茶目なやり取りである。(笑)

 (18)段落に注目してもらいたい。「日本とインドの友好関係は時の試練を経ている」と書いてある。
“Japan’s friendship with India is time tested.
 うれしいね、こういう発言は。高校生の大半が知らないだろうから『日本人はなぜ特攻を選んだのか』(黄文雄著 徳間書店 198ページ)から該当箇所を引用して紹介しておく。インドと日本の有効の歴史は長い、そしてそれはインド独立に深く関わっている。

--------------------------------
 戦犯裁判で償還された日本軍、外務省関係者のいる前で、手跡弁護士を務めたインド法曹界の重鎮パラバイ・デザイ博士は堂々と次のように言った。
 「インドはまもなく独立する。この独立の機会を与えてくれたのは日本であり、日本のおかげで30年も早まった。インドだけではない。ビルマもインドネシアもベトナムも東亜民族は皆同じである。インド国民はこれを心に深く刻み、日本の復興には惜しみなく協力しよう」
 かつて日本軍と共に戦ってきたINA大尉、INA全国委員会事務局長のS.S.セダックはこう語った。
 「インドが日本から受けた恩恵は言葉に尽くせないほど大きなものです。日本はインドを解放するに当たって、可能な限りの軍事援助を提供しました。何十万にも上る日本軍将兵がインド国民軍の戦友として共にちと汗と涙を流してくれました。日本帝国陸軍がインドの大儀のために払った崇高な犠牲を永久に忘れません。インドの独立は日本陸軍によってもたらされました。・・・
   
--------------------------------
 かつて大アジア主義というのがあった。白人国家からのアジアの独立を成し遂げようと、日本は国家や私人のレベルでアジア各国を軍事的に支援してきた歴史がある。大東亜戦争は白人国家の支配からアジアを解放しようという戦いでもあった。アジアの中で唯一白人国家の側についた裏切り者が中国である。アジア最大の国家であった中国こそ、白人の植民地支配からアジア各国を解放するために戦うべきだったが、現実はそうではなかった。中国だけがアジアを裏切り白人国家の側についた。だから中国は東南アジア各国からもインドからも尊敬されていない。それどころか、戦後70年たってもまだ強引に領土と領海の拡張をしようとしている。ベトナムがフランスとの戦争に勝ち、米国との戦争に勝利したあとで、中国が80万人の軍隊で侵略しようとしたことを日本人の多くが知らない(ご多分にもれずわたしも最近武田邦彦ブログで知った-笑)。中国は一貫してアジア各国に対する侵略的な政策を改めようとはしない。

*#2687 『日本人はなぜ特攻を選んだのか』①黄文雄著 May 26, 2014 
http://nimuorojyuku.blog.so-net.ne.jp/2014-05-25-3



 9月4日のジャパンタイムズ社説でもとりあげられているので、URLを貼り付けておきます。
 インドも日本も貿易は対中国の方がずっと多いのです、だからこそ、対中国依存度を引き下げておきたいというのが両国の狙い。すこし視点が違うので面白いと思います。
Japan and India's China challenge | The Japan Times



にほんブログ村 地域生活(街) 北海道ブログ 根室情報へ
にほんブログ村
 

日本人はなぜ特攻を選んだのか (一般書)

日本人はなぜ特攻を選んだのか (一般書)

  • 作者: 黄 文雄
  • 出版社/メーカー: 徳間書店
  • 発売日: 2013/11/21
  • メディア: 単行本


#2692 気になる記事7本の紹介  May, 29, 2014 [高校・大学生のためのJT記事]

 JT紙(ジャパンタイムズ)の最近の記事で面白そうなものを紹介する。このうちから1~2本の解説をあとで解説するつもりだ。

 労働力不足:生産年齢人口が急速に縮小し始めている。ピークに比べてすでに1000万人減少して、労働市場は売り手市場へと変わりつつある。生産が増えて雇用増が生じて売り手市場になったのではないところが、まったく新しい現象である。生産年齢人口が昨年8000万人を割り、2060年には3971万人に半減する*。
  だからといって、わたしは移民や国際的な出稼ぎ労働者を増やすことには反対である。長期的な観点から考えると、正規雇用の職が少なすぎるから、給料を上げて非正規雇用を正規雇用に切り換えていくべきだと思う。そうでないと培われたさまざまな仕事についてのスキルが次の世代に伝承できなくなる。私たちが前の世代から受け継ぎ、磨いたスキルを次の世代へしっかりと渡すことは当代の私たちの役目である。文化や仕事のスキルを担い、伝承して消えていくべきだ。
 めずらしく安倍総理と意見が一致しているようだが、簡単に宗旨を変え、正反対のことに邁進する姿を何度も見せつけられたので、さてどうなるのか、心配しながら経緯を見守りたい。

*社会保障・人口問題研究所推計
http://www.ipss.go.jp/syoushika/tohkei/newest04/con2h.html

(1) Succes of 'Abenomics' hinges on immigration policy: 5/19
http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2014/05/18/national/success-abenomics-hinges-immigration-policy/
--------------------------------------
In March, Hidenori Sakanaka, a former director of the Tokyo Regional Immigration Bureau, was contacted by — and met with — a group of people he had never dreamed of crossing paths with: asset managers from global investment firms.

Sakanaka, who now heads the Japan Immigration Policy Institute in Tokyo, was asked to explain Japan’s notoriously tight immigration policies and his proposal to drastically ease them to save Japan from the severe consequences of its rapidly aging and shrinking population.

Sakanaka said the asset managers showed strong interest in a remark made the previous month by Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, and that they were wondering if they should buy Japanese assets, such as stocks and real estate.

In February, Abe indicated he is considering easing Japan’s immigration policies to accept more migrant workers to drive long-term economic growth.

The asset managers reportedly included representatives from investment giants BlackRock Inc. and Capital Group.

“Global investors have a consistent policy of not investing in a country with a shrinking working and consumer population,” Sakanaka told The Japan Times.

“If the working population keeps shrinking, it will keep pushing down consumption and the country will be unable to maintain economic growth. In short, this means the growth strategies of ‘Abenomics’ can’t be successful without accepting immigrants,” Sakanaka said.

Abe is set to revamp in June the elusive “third arrow” of his economic program — structural reforms and subsidies that could boost Japan’s potential for mid- to long-term growth.

Whether drastic deregulation of immigration is part of the third arrow is something that both the public and the foreign investment firms want to know.

Japan’s population will dramatically shrink over the next five decades, from 117.52 million in 2012 to 87 million in 2060 — if the fertility rate doesn’t climb. The rate is expected to hover at 1.39 this year before dipping to 1.33 through 2024 and edging up to 1.35 for the foreseeable future.

Gross domestic product is expected to shrink accordingly, which could reduce the world’s third-largest economy to a minor player both economically and politically, many fear.

“Whether to accept (more) immigrants or not is an issue relevant to the future of our country and the overall life of the people. I understand that (the government) should study it from various angles after undergoing national-level discussions,” Abe told the Lower House Budget Committee on Feb. 13.

On May 12, members of a special government advisory panel on deregulation proposed creating six special regions where visa regulations would be eased to attract more foreign professionals and domestic helpers and baby sitters to assist them.

The daily Nikkei reported the government is likely to insert visa deregulation for certain types of foreigners in the Abenomics revamp due in June, but how many he is willing to let in remains unclear.

The conservative politician has so far appeared reluctant to promote heavy immigration and risk transforming Japan’s stable but rather rigid and exclusive society.

Abe has argued Japan should give more foreigners three- to five-year visas rather than let a massive number of immigrants permanently settle in Japan.

“What are immigrants? The U.S. is a country of immigrants who came from all around the world and formed the (United States). Many people have come to the country and become part of it. We won’t adopt a policy like that,” Abe said on a TV program aired April 20.

“On the other hand, it is definitely true that Japan’s population will keep shrinking and Japan will see a labor shortage in various production fields,” Abe said, adding he will consider easing regulations on issuing three- to five-year visas.

“It’s not an immigrant policy. We’d like them to work and raise incomes for a limited period of time, and then return home,” Abe said.

Among the core supporters of LDP lawmakers, including Abe himself, are nationalistic voters opposed to welcoming large numbers of unskilled foreign laborers, who are now barred from Japan. They fear that bringing in such people would increase the crime rate and deprive Japanese of job opportunities in the still-sluggish economy. This concern seems to be shared by a majority of Japanese. According to a poll by the daily Yomiuri Shimbun in April, while 74 percent of the 1,512 polled said they believe population decline will hurt Japan’s economy and contribute to its decline, 54 percent said they opposed bringing in more foreigners versus 37 percent who backed the idea.

Two high-ranking officials close to Abe, speaking on condition of anonymity, have said they are aware that foreign investors are interested in potential changes in Japanese immigration policy.

But their main interest appears to be to keep foreign investors interested in Japan, and trading on the Tokyo Stock Exchange, rather than transform Japan into a multicultural society by accepting more immigrants.

One of the two officials has repeatedly suggested he is paying close attention to foreign investors, pointing out that it is they, not Japanese investors, who have been pushing up stock prices since Abe took office in December 2012.

“We won’t call it an immigration policy, but I think we should accept more foreign workers,” the official said in February.

Hiking immigration is a sensitive issue for the conservative Liberal Democratic Party, the official said. But the idea of using them to fill shortages in medical, nursing, child care, for example, would be more palatable to such politicians, the official added.

Abe’s call for more short- to midterm migrant workers might help the short-handed construction, medical and nursing industries, among others. But it is unlikely to solve Japan’s long-term population crisis.

Junichi Goto, professor of economics at Keio University and an expert on immigration issues, said few people are opposed to bringing in more foreign professionals to reinvigorate the economy and that deregulation is urgently needed.

When it comes to unskilled workers, however, Goto is opposed to flooding Japan with cheap labor and says that a national consensus on the issue hasn’t been formed yet.

According to Goto’s studies and simulations, bringing in low-wage, unskilled foreigners would benefit consumers by pushing down domestic labor costs and thus prices for goods and services, thereby boosting consumption. On the other hand, he says the cost of domestic education, medical and other public services would rise.

The benefits of bringing in foreigners will far outweigh the demerits, unless Japan ships them in by the millions, Goto’s study says.

“If the Japanese people wish to accept millions of foreign workers, that would be OK. But I don’t think they are ready for such a big social change yet,” Goto said.

Instead, Goto argued that Japan should first encourage more women and elderly to work to offset the predicted shrinkage. It should then ease regulations to lure foreign professionals rather than unskilled laborers, and reform the rigid seniority-based wage system to make it easier for midcareer foreigners to enter the labor market, Goto said.

At any rate, the rapid demographic changes now hitting Japan are unlikely to leave much time for the people to make a decision.

The proportion of seniors 65 or older will surge from 24 percent to as much as 39.9 percent in 2060, raising the burden on younger generations to support social security.

The Japan Policy Council, a study group of intellectuals from various fields, estimates that in 2040, 896 of Japan’s municipalities, or virtually half, will see the number of women in their 20s and 30s decline by more than half from 2010 as they flock to big cities.

Such municipalities “could eventually vanish” even if the birthrate recovers, the group warned in a report May 8.

Sakanaka praised Abe’s February remarks, saying it is a significant change from Japan’s long-standing reluctance to accept foreign workers.

But if Abe decides to open Japan only to short-term migrants, rather than permanent immigrants, Abenomics will end in failure, Sakanaka warned.
--------------------------------------

(2) More foreigners working in Japan : 2/16
http://www.japantimes.co.jp/opinion/2014/02/15/editorials/more-foreigners-working-in-japan/
--------------------------------------
More foreigners are working in Japan than ever before, according to the Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry. At the end of October 2013, the number of foreign workers in Japan stood at 717,504, up 5.1 percent from the year before. The number was the highest since employers started regularly submitting reports on foreign employees to the ministry in 2007.

Politicians of many different stripes will surely seek to exploit this new data for rhetorical purposes, but the increase results from many complex and interwoven factors.

First, the increase stemmed from a slight improvement in employment, though there was not a great change in all areas and surely not for all workers.

The increase also reveals that Japanese workplaces are internationalizing just as workplaces worldwide are doing. In fact, Japan is far behind most other advanced countries in the percentage of workers who come from other countries.

The foreign percentage of Japan’s labor force stands at about 1 percent, compared with 36 percent in Singapore. Britain has 4.26 million foreign-born workers.

The ministry also noted that more Japanese firms want to hire foreign workers with special skills, especially as companies begin business operations in other Asian countries. There is also a need to hire foreigners who are willing to take jobs that Japanese tend to avoid. The recent hiring of more Indonesian and Filipino nurses and care workers is just one example of internationalizing trends.

Many workplaces are now starting to accept diversity, changing past expectations of homogeneity.

Many other businesses simply need more employees. Some 40 percent of construction companies have reported not having enough workers, an important point considering that Japan will need a lot of construction work for the 2020 Tokyo Olympics. However, with more foreigners entering more workplaces in Japan, the possibility of worsening employment conditions needs to be considered and regulations put in place to ensure workers are treated fairly.

At the same time, hiring more foreign workers means that anti-foreign sentiment may increase as a result of some people assuming, wrongly, that hiring more foreign workers means taking jobs from Japanese.

To reduce such frictions, the government and businesses need to create stable, regular employment for all workers. It is not the presence of foreign workers that destabilizes working conditions, but rather employers who exploit cheap labor.

The government needs to prevent such employers from offering positions to those willing to work for the lowest pay.

Both the government and the business sector also need to ensure that all employees receive fair and equal treatment.

Integrating foreign workers into Japanese workplaces, while ensuring that working conditions improve for Japanese workers — especially women — is not an easy task, but it is one that the government should address directly, seriously and urgently.
--------------------------------------

(3)  Boosting the female workforce : 5/19
http://www.japantimes.co.jp/opinion/2014/05/18/editorials/boosting-the-female-workforce/

--------------------------------------
The Abe administration is pushing for a review of the tax and social security benefits for households with full-time housewives or low-income housewives, on the grounds that such rules serve as disincentives against women’s greater participation in the labor force even as the nation faces a steep decline in its working-age population.

In making the review, the government also needs to look at other hurdles that discourage women with children from spending more working outside the house. Otherwise, it could end up merely adding to the burden on households by abolishing or scaling down the benefits.

Salaried workers can have their taxable income reduced by ¥380,000 if their spouses earn less than ¥1.03 million a year. If the spouses earn between ¥1.03 million and ¥1.41 million, the main bread earners can still deduct an amount lower than ¥380,000 from their taxable income. Separately, if the spouses earn less than ¥1.3 million a year, they can be exempt from pension premium payments and be covered by the main bread earners’ corporate pension schemes.

Many of housewives who work part-time jobs are believed to adjust their work hours and keep their annual income from surpassing these thresholds to retain the status advantageous in tax and pension premiums.

・・・
--------------------------------------


(4) 'Abenomics' fueling rise in working poor : 5/19
http://in.reuters.com/article/2014/05/14/uk-japan-economy-poverty-idINKBN0DU20620140514
--------------------------------------
(Reuters) - Last Christmas Eve, Ririko Saito and her 11-year-old daughter gathered some plastic bottles, pots and a kettle and made several trips to a nearby park to get water. Their utility had just turned off the tap after months of unpaid bills.

"I was going to take care of it as soon as I got my paycheck in a few days," the 49-year-old single mother said. "I figured they wouldn’t be so callous to cut us off at that time of year. I figured wrong."

Saito, who works part-time caring for the elderly in a Tokyo hospital and gets welfare to supplement her salary, represents a growing army of poor in a nation that continues to pride itself on being an egalitarian society despite a decades-long rise in poverty.

At 16 percent, Japan’s relative poverty rate – the share of the population living on less than half of the national median income – is already the sixth-worst among the 34 OECD countries, just ahead of the United States. Child poverty in working, single-parent households like Saito’s is by far the worst at over 50 percent, making Japan the only country where having a job does not reduce the poverty rate for that group.

As Prime Minister Shinzo Abe charges ahead with his ・・・
--------------------------------------


  アベノミクス関連で、三本の矢のうちのひとつ、「異次元の量的緩和」と「ゼロ金利政策」にだ口戦略がないことを専門家たちが騒いでいる。
(5) Expert urge BOJ to draft exit strategy : 4/13
http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2014/04/12/business/experts-urge-boj-to-draft-exit-strategy/

--------------------------------------
Despite lingering market pressure on the Bank of Japan to take further easing steps, its Group of 20 counterparts might not welcome the central bank’s next move.

With concern mounting about how the BOJ’s unprecedented purchases of government bonds and risky assets will impact global markets, the G-20 finance chiefs might pressure the BOJ in the near future to clarify how it will phase out the deflation-busting measures.

The G-20 finance ministers and central bank governors — who are struggling to prevent the Russia-Ukraine crisis from hurting the world economy — wrapped up their two-day meeting Friday in Washington by emphasizing in a communique that they will “continue to provide clear and timely communication” of their monetary policy actions.

In this context, some experts have expressed caution that the BOJ may draw international criticism if it takes additional credit easing measures that could have strong side effects without preparing an exit strategy.

As the U.S. Federal Reserve has been asked by emerging economies at the G-20 gathering to communicate with the financial markets about how fast it will taper its own giant monetary stimulus program, the BOJ could soon find itself in the same situation.

Many observers say the BOJ is likely to take action early this year to achieve its 2 percent inflation target because the economy is widely expected to stall following the April 1 consumption tax hike — Japan’s first in 17 years.

On Tuesday, after the BOJ decided to leave its aggressive monetary easing policy in place, ・・・
--------------------------------------
 

 地下水は公共の財産である。世界的な水資源争奪戦が始まっている。日本の水資源を守るためには立法措置も必要だ。

(6)  Protecting the water cycle : 5/19
http://www.japantimes.co.jp/opinion/2014/05/18/editorials/protecting-the-water-cycle/

--------------------------------------
The Diet has enacted a basic law on the water cycle, which is set to take effect by July. The legislation, submitted by a supra-partisan group of lawmakers, aims to maintain and restore the water cycle — the constant movement of water above, on and below the surface of the earth in the form of vapor, rain or snowfall, rivers, lakes, aquifers and oceans — in this country.

Disruption to this cycle could result in water shortages or declines in water quality. Water shortage is already a serious issue in many other countries. On the strength of the basic law, the government needs to adopt concrete measures so that Japan can continue to secure a sufficient amount of clean water, which is indispensable in ensuring a healthy life for people and a vigorous pursuit of economic activities.

At present the administration of water is segmented among different government organizations. Rivers and sewerage systems are under the jurisdiction of the land and infrastructure ministry; headwater areas in mountains under the Forestry Agency; agricultural water under the farm ministry; city tap water under the health and welfare ministry; and water for industrial use under the trade and industry ministry. This reflects the lack of a system for protecting the nation’s water resources from the viewpoint of the water cycle.

The basic law calls for setting up a policy headquarters on water-related issues at the Cabinet level, which will be tasked to write a basic plan to keep the natural movement of water in smooth conditions. Policy coordination among the government bodies concerned is needed to work out a comprehensive policy to achieve the law’s goal.

In recent years, Japan has seen increasing purchases of forest land in headwater areas by foreign capital — in particular Chinese capital. This has raised alarms over the preservation of the nation’s water resources, with concerns growing among local governments in those areas that public use of underground water beneath the purchased land could be blocked.

・・・

--------------------------------------

 原子力発電によって出る核廃棄物の処分場がないなかで、原発が再稼動されようとしている。
(7)  Japan's nuclear waste problem : 1/22
http://www.japantimes.co.jp/opinion/2014/01/21/editorials/japans-nuclear-waste-problem/

--------------------------------------
The government plans to step up its efforts to select the final disposal site for high-level radioactive waste from nuclear power generation, after having failed to find any willing host community for more than a decade. But the long-stalled process will have little prospect of moving forward unless doubts and questions surrounding nuclear power — including those highlighted by the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster — are answered.

・・・
--------------------------------------

  あの事件にはカタヤマユウスケ被告(32歳)にみごとにだまされた。
(8) Suspect flip-flops on email threats : 5/21
http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2014/05/20/national/crime-legal/suspect-flip-flops-email-threats/

A
computer expert on trial for sending violent threats from other people’s hacked computers has admitted he’s guilty, calling himself “a psychopath” in a surprise confession, his lawyer said Tuesday, potentially ending a case that had earlier seen police arrest the wrong suspects.


にほんブログ村 地域生活(街) 北海道ブログ 根室情報へ
にほんブログ村


#2652 Defend dolphins, not a 'tradition'  Apr. 21, 2014 [高校・大学生のためのJT記事]

  標題は2月2日、ジャパンタイムズ日曜版の社説の見出しである。太地町のイルカ追い込み漁をCNNが取材し、血で染まった海を世界中にセンセーショナルに報道したことがあった。欧米はイルカ漁に反対なのである。理由はいくつかある。殺し方が残酷、哺乳類だから、知能が高いから、これら三つが主要な理由に上げられているが、一番大きな理由は書かれていないこと、彼らがイルカやクジラを食べる習慣がないことに尽きる。

 日本のイルカ漁は縄文時代に遡る。北海道、千葉県、神奈川県、静岡県、石川県等の貝塚からイルカの骨が見つかっている。近世でもイルカ漁は太平洋岸の地域で盛んに行われており、明治・大正・昭和の終わりまで全国各地でイルカ漁が行われていたが、1988年の商業捕鯨のモラトリアムの影響で一時期捕獲頭数が増え、その後激減している。91年以降漁獲制限・割り当てがなされるようになってからのことである。だまっていたら欧米のスタンダードに合わない食文化、漁法はこの世から消えてしまう。いろんな食文化があっていい。
 もう一つ付け加えたいことは日本人はイルカもクジラもそのほとんどを捨てることなく利用していることである。米国は油をとるために捕鯨を盛んにした。鯨油をとったらあとは捨てていた。石油が出てから鯨油を利用しなくなったから鯨をとらなくなっただけで、元々彼らに鯨やイルカを食べる習慣はなかった。

 イルカは哺乳類だから屠殺場で殺処理すべきであるというのが欧米の獣医や行動科学者の意見だ。イルカは哺乳類だから牛やブタといっしょに扱うべきという。ところが日本人にとっては海で獲れるイルカも鯨も食材としては「魚」というのが日本人の感覚。イルカを食べたことも、売っているところを見たこともないが、クジラ肉は団塊世代のebisuが小学生の頃は魚屋さんで販売していた。いい部位は牛肉よりも高かった。
 同じものをイルカやクジラについて議論しても、その肉を食材にしているか否かでこんなにとらえ方が異なる。

 イルカの知能が高いということもイルカ漁への有力な反対理由に挙げられており、彼らはイルカをチンパンジーと同列に考えている。日本人でイルカとチンパンジーを頭の中に想像してイコール記号で結ぶ者はいないだろう。
 欧米人がイルカ追い込み漁や捕鯨にどういう理屈で反対しているのかこういう記事でも読まないと知る機会がなかなかない。
 この記事は食文化についての議論をしながら英語嫌いのS朗君と読んだ。こういうテーマなら食いついてくるから、まるっきりきらいなわけではない。興味のわく面白いテーマなら英語嫌いでも読む気になれるものだ。そして読んでいるうちに慣れてくる。アレルギー治療にアレルゲンを体内に入れて身体を慣れさせる減感作治療というのがあるが、興味のわくテーマを選んで読ませるというのはそういう英語アレルギーの治療の類か?(笑)

 新聞社説記事には読み上げ音声用再生用のQRコードが印刷されている。これをスマホで読み込めば再生できる。オンライン記事にはないので、読み込みたい根室在住の人はニムオロ塾へ来ればいい。ファイルしてある。


http://www.japantimes.co.jp/opinion/2014/02/01/editorials/defend-dolphins-not-a-tradition/
============================

Defend dolphins, not a ‘tradition’

In mid-January, somewhere between 250 and 500 dolphins were driven into the cove near Taiji, a small town in western Japan made famous in the award-winning film, “The Cove.” There, at least 100 of the dolphins were slaughtered for their meat. Others were packed up and sold to aquariums.

The dolphins are herded, butchered and sold every year, but this year, the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society, together with CNN news uploaded videos of the dolphin hunt. The video, available online, is not for the faint of heart. Despite claims of humane killing methods, the video shows the fishermen hacking into the heads and backs of the panicked dolphins, then leaving them to bleed to death, turning the entire cove bright red.

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe defended the practice in an interview with CNN and Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga told reporters at a news conference that marine mammals including dolphins were “very important water resources.” Suga insisted “Dolphin fishing is one of the traditional fishing forms of our country and is carried out appropriately in accordance with the law.”

Their argument that the force of tradition justifies the herding, capturing and slaughtering of dolphins is a flimsy one. Many past cultural practices, such as slavery, bordellos and beheading were stopped for ethical reasons. Tradition and culture are forces that change in accordance with new scientific understanding and evolving ethical standards. In addition, the Taiji hunt didn’t even become institutionalized on a large scale until 1969, so its roots are quite shallow.

Their argument that the slaughter adheres to principles of the law is equally questionable. Veterinarians and behavioral scientists who viewed the covertly recorded video contend that the killing method used in this year’s Taiji dolphin hunt would not be permitted in any slaughterhouse in the developed world.

Indeed, it is open to question whether the method would be acceptable if used to slaughter cows or other livestock in Japan.

Japanese law states that all methods of killing livestock should reduce the animals’ suffering as much as possible. The method of sending “fishermen” into the water with knives to stab the dolphins, clearly evident in the video, does not begin to meet that guideline. The desperate flailing of the wounded animals and the long time it takes them to die go against the accepted animal welfare standards employed in advanced societies.

Japan has already stopped invasive research and other harmful practices on species such as chimpanzees. Intelligent animal species have always held a special closeness to humans because of their intelligence, capacity for suffering and complex social relations. Dolphins are even known to commit suicide when distressed or confused.

Japan has another tradition, one of deep respect for nature and the creatures in it. That tradition would be much easier to defend. The dolphin hunt is an inhumane practice that should be stopped.

============================

#2650 Whaling ban or boon for Japan ? Apr. 20, 2014 
http://nimuorojyuku.blog.so-net.ne.jp/2014-04-20

にほんブログ村 地域生活(街) 北海道ブログ 根室情報へ
にほんブログ村




#2650 Whaling ban or boon for Japan ? Apr. 20, 2014 [高校・大学生のためのJT記事]


 時事英語の授業で記事を読み終わった直後の質問ですが、高校生が戸惑っていました。
「簡単そうなんだけど、(適切な)日本語がでてこない・・・」

------------------------------------------------
問題: 新聞の見出しですが和訳してください。

  Whaling ban or boon for Japan ?
------------------------------------------------


 4月13日のジャパンタイムズ日曜版の1面トップの記事を時事英語の教材に使ったのだが、ジャパンタイムズの記事を検索できない(アップしていない)ので、替わりにヤフーニュースをコピペしておく。

 クジラ漁やイルカ漁で日本と米国や西欧と文化摩擦が起きているから、それぞれ英文記事の材料を提供するので高校生や大学生は自分の頭で一度考えてもらいたい。
 和歌山県太地町イルカ漁のニュースはジャパンタイムズの2月か3月の日曜版社説がとりあげていたので、時事英語の授業でとりあげている。S朗君に食文化について考えてもらった。Taijiが地名だと気がつかず、「辞書に載っていない」と質問があったので、太地町が和歌山県にあり、入り江の入り口が狭くなっている地形の港町であること、江戸時代にはイルカ漁をしていると解説しておいた。イルカ追い込み漁のやりかたを説明したので、そのあとはスムーズに読めただろう。
 驚いたのは哺乳類だから牛やブタと同じように屠場で殺処理すべきだという欧米の獣医や行動科学者の弁である。ずいぶんと手前勝手な意見に聞こえた。
 日本の食文化に関する情報の発信の仕方が足りないことは事実のようで、海外で仕事をする人たちは日本の文化と伝統を深く理解し、しっかりした意見を世界の人々に伝えてもらいたい。
(⇒イルカ漁に関するJT紙の2月2日付社説は#2652に転載します。)

 日本では、海で獲れるクジラやイルカは哺乳類であっても魚であって動物としては扱われていない。私の記憶ではクジラ肉は魚屋さんで売っていた。団塊世代のebisuが小学生のころだが、お隣の魚屋さんでクジラ肉を売っていた。魚屋でクジラ肉を買う、それが普通の光景だった。根室の肉屋でクジラ肉を扱っていた店を知らない。
 いつでも事実と書き手の意見を区別しながら読む癖をつけたらいい人の意見に左右されずに英文ニュース記事を虚心に読み、そのうえで自分の頭で考えてもらいたい

 見出しを読み、ありありと書いた人のイメージが伝わってくれば「ほぼ読めている」と判断できるから、ヤブーニュースを読んでから、もう一度見出しを眺めて和訳してみたらいい。

 国際司法裁判所は科学的な調査捕鯨を禁止したわけではなく、現在の調査捕鯨が科学的な調査の範囲を逸脱していると認定しただけだから、日本は科学的な根拠のある調査捕鯨の具体的なプランを公表して、調査捕鯨を再開することになるのだろう。
 それにしても、姑息な「棲息数に関する調査」ではダメだろう、捕獲したクジラは解体処理されて市場へ出回っているのだから。日本人は正面から議論することを避けるが、食文化や伝統工芸品を守るために必要な捕獲頭数を明示して、食文化の観点から捕鯨議論をすべきだ。お互いの相違を認めるところから議論が始まる。

http://news.yahoo.com/un-top-court-rule-japan-whale-hunt-antarctic-014628570.html
==========================

Whaling ban applauded despite fears of Japan sidestep

Sydney (AFP) - Australia and New Zealand on Tuesday applauded a court decision that Japan must halt its annual Antarctic whale hunt, but raised fears it could sidestep the order and begin whaling again under a new "scientific" guise.

The United Nations' Hague-based International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled on Monday that Japan's whaling programme was a commercial activity disguised as science, and said it must revoke existing whaling licences.

A "deeply disappointed" Tokyo said it would honour the ruling but did not exclude the possibility of future whaling programmes, with New Zealand expressing concerns Japan may try to circumvent the order.

"The ICJ decision sinks a giant harpoon into the legality of Japan's whaling programme," New Zealand Foreign Minister Murray McCully said.

"It still does leave Japan with a decision to make after they've digested this, which is to look at whether they try to devise a new programme that is scientifically based that they could embark upon whaling in the Southern Ocean again.

"Our task is to make sure that we carry out a diplomatic conversation that dissuades them from embarking on that course."

A Japanese minister on Tuesday defended whaling-- seen by some as an important cultural practice -- but stopped short of detailing what next steps Japan would take.

"Whale meat is an important source of food, and the government's position to use it based on scientific facts has not changed," Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Minister Yoshimasa Hayashi told a press conference.

"We will scrutinise the verdict and study (measures to be taken) swiftly," he said according to the Jiji news agency. Japan also has a coastal whaling programme which is not covered by the ban.

Australia, backed by New Zealand, hauled Japan before the ICJ in 2010 in a bid to end the annual Southern Ocean hunt.

Tokyo has long been accused of exploiting a legal loophole in the 1986 ban on commercial whaling that allowed the practice to collect scientific data. Japan has killed 10,000 of the giant mammals under the scheme since 1988, Australia has alleged.

International law expert Steven Freeland, from the University of Western Sydney, said Japan could simply redesign its whaling programme to skirt the ruling. He pointed out that the ICJ confirmed scientific research can include killing whales -- just not so many.

"The problem for Japan was its failure to take proper account of non-lethal methods of research or to justify the actual catch numbers it had declared," he said.

"Japan may instead take a very close look at why its implementation of (its research programme) fell foul of its legal obligations and perhaps seek to design and ultimately implement a new whaling programme that takes into account all of those elements."

Japan had argued that its JARPA II research programme was aimed at studying the viability of whale hunting, but the ICJ found it had failed to examine ways of doing the research without killing whales, or at least while killing fewer of them.

Masayuki Komatsu, a former head negotiator for Japan on the whaling issue, said Tokyo had been a victim of its own lax approach over the last decade.

"It became clear in the court procedure and hearings... that Japan was not ambitious enough about its scientific research as it did not catch as many whales as it needed for obtaining data," he said.

"As a result, the entire research whaling programme was judged as a commercial hunt."

A respected blogger and social commentator on Japanese issues, who goes by the name of Hikosaemon, said the narrow issue of whether or not the whaling programme was "science" largely missed the point.

"I think it is clear that both sides here... were seeking moral vindication of their positions," he told AFP.

"Even if it can fix the technical issues with its scientific whaling programme... Japan will need to weigh up whether it is worth the increasing PR damage this issue causes."

The irony, added Hikosaemon, is that the issue of whaling is itself not particularly important for many Japanese.

But efforts "to demonise Japan over this issue have galvanised a siege mentality that has transformed this from an issue about the right to hunt and eat whales, into a more fundamental issue of fair treatment among countries with different cultural values."

Among the 16 judges, 12 -- including ones from Russia and China -- supported the verdict which ordered Japan to stop Antarctic whaling, according to Japanese press reports.

The four judges who opposed it were Japan's Hisashi Owada, and judges from France, Morocco and Somalia. Owada, 81, a former Japanese vice foreign minister and ambassador to the United Nations, is the father of Crown Princess Masako, the wife of Crown Prince Naruhito.

==========================

 へえ、ジャパンタイムズの記事には載っていなかったが、国際司法裁判所の16人の裁判官(judges)のうち、日本の調査捕鯨禁止に賛成したのは12人、捕鯨禁止に反対した裁判官4人の内の一人は小和田氏(81歳)、皇太子妃の父親である。いや、ご立派、うれしくなった。

 イルカ漁については英国ガーディアン紙の記事のURLを書いておくのでクリックして読んでみてほしい。日本の食文化と欧米の食文化の違いを理解した上で、欧米と戦う論理を組み立ててもらいたい。(この記事はある簡単な操作でコピペ防止措置を外せたので、ワードにコピペして記事を保存した。)
http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jan/21/japanese-fishermen-finish-taiji-dolphin-hunt



<解説>
 最高裁判決のときに、裁判所から飛び出してきて、あらかじめ用意してあった判決を筆で大書きした紙を広げる光景を何度か見たことがあるだろうか?テレビが走って出てきた人に焦点を合わせる、その瞬間のキモチだと思えばいい。具体的なシーンがイメージできたらOKだ。
「有罪か無罪、どっち?」

 単に"A or B"と言っているだけ。
 for Japan という前置詞句はboonにかかるだけで、whaling banのほうにはかかっていないことに注意したい。
 意味を考えるとすぐに気がつくはずだが、形からは区別がつかない。字面にとらわれているとイメージを受け損なうが、字面から離れすぎても好い加減になる。ほどほどの距離感で書き手のイメージがなんなのかを考えよう。
 見出しの文は短いのに限るから、すぐに判断できる句は省略されるのである。省略されたものを補えばよりいっそうハッキリするから、見出しの文を50くらい並べて、片っ端から省略のない文を復元するというトレーニングも面白いかも知れぬ。
 アンダーライン部分が省略されたと考えていいだろう。

 Which is the judgement, whaling ban or boon for Japan ?

 「捕鯨禁止それとも日本に利益、判決はどっち?」

 高校生諸君、時事英語は楽しいだろう?




にほんブログ村 地域生活(街) 北海道ブログ 根室情報へ
にほんブログ村


#2584 北海道の高校生や大学生のためだけの(?)HIV知識 Feb. 6, 2014 [高校・大学生のためのJT記事]

  過去ログを調べたら、この記事に関心が高いことがわかったのでURLを再掲します。興味のある方はURLをクリックして読んでください。

*#2024 高校生のためのホットな性感染症知識:HIV感染の実態と新薬  July 23, 2012 
http://nimuorojyuku.blog.so-net.ne.jp/2012-07-23

 #2026 高校生のためのホットな性感染症知識(2):国際エイズ会議 July 25, 2012 
 
http://nimuorojyuku.blog.so-net.ne.jp/2012-07-25
 
 ジャパンタイムズの当該記事は削除されています。掲示期間が案外短いのですね。こういう記事は社会的に意義の大きなものなので、この次から全文転載しておかなくてはなりませんね。もっとも、JT社からクレームがあれば削除要請に応じますが、たぶんそういうことはなさらないでしょう。わたしも企業人を30年ほどやっていたので、逆の立場で広報担当だったらそういう無粋なことはいたしません。

 コメント欄の中に札幌の病院で勤務経験のあるドクターから「生々しい」投稿があるので、本欄へアップしてご覧に入れます。ご笑覧ください。

「#2024」 投稿覧より 
============================
>患者を増やさぬためには患者同士で

グロテスクな現実です。

by Hirosuke (2012-07-24 14:54)

============================
Hirosukeさんへ

>グロテスクな現実です

米国で新発売になる予防薬をパートナーに飲んでもらえば移さずにすみますが、飲み忘れると感染します。
年間14000ドルですから、日本で認可されれば自己負担30%でずから年額30万円ほどで利用できます。
HIV陽性者にとっては朗報でしょう。

やけになって移しまくる人が出るでしょうから、たいへんです。美人のキャリアーに誘われたら・・・
見た目ではわからないですから、怖い話しです。
by ebisu (2012-07-24 22:29) 
============================
最初の御願いが「これ飲んで下さい。」じゃ嫌われます。

by Hirosuke (2012-07-24 22:42)
============================
あいにくと、HIVキャリアーの人がHIV未感染の
相手に最初に「これ飲んでください」とは言えないんです。

パートナーがHIVキャリアーで、自分がHIVでないと検査で判明しない限り、薬は処方できないルールになっています。

セックスしてから打ち明けるしか手はなさそうです。
「移したかも知れないから、検査して確認してほしい。移ってなければ薬を処方してもらって毎日飲んでもらえないだろうか」
現実にはこういうシーンになるでしょうね。

こんな事を事後に告白されたら、感染していなければ二度とお付き合いしないでしょう。
だからHIVキャリアーの人はカミングアウトしない。

若い人たちは気の毒です。
by ebisu (2012-07-24 23:15)
============================
予防薬なのに、適用ルールが無茶です。


by Hirosuke (2012-07-24 23:50)
============================
HIV感染者が服用すると薬剤耐性ヴィールスを作ることになるので、未感染を証明するためにHIV検査が必要になります。
HIVが強い薬剤体制を獲得したら、治療が著しく困難になり、新薬開発と薬剤耐性ウィルスのいたちごっこになります。

結核菌がそうなっています。多剤耐性菌が出現し、治療が困難な例がでて死亡率があがっています。
こわいですね。

HIVについてはもうひとつ21日のジャパンタイムズに記事が載っていましたので、そちらも紹介するつもりで、いま書き掛けです。

by ebisu (2012-07-25 09:06
============================
以前札幌rすすきの近くのクリニックで毎週土曜に外来のアルバイトを10年以上やっておりました。場所柄そのクリニックは”その道の女性”が定期検診に訪れます。大体どこの店も月に1度はHIV感染症・梅毒の血液検査、半月に一度は膣ぬぐい液でカンディダ・クラミジア検査を女性に課しています。その結果に問題が有れば店には出させません。

これは、すすきのと言う風俗街近くの一クリニックのデータですが、小生は”その道の女性”でHIV陽性者は見たことがありません。そのクリニックには他に二名の医師が居り、三人で合わせて200人位の女性を定期的に検査していますが、陽性者が出たという話は聞いておりませんでした。全ての女性がコンドームを使っているとは限りません。それを考えるとこれは或る意味大変な驚きです。では現実にHIV陽性者は何処に居るのか・・・。それは性風俗関連の場所よりもむしろ一般病院(地域のセンター病院)で見られます。過去に血液製剤を使った患者さん達です。これはHIVが直接血液内に入ってしまうので”感染力が弱い”HIVでも高率にエイズを引き起こします。
エイズは免疫不全を引き起こし様々な病態を呈しますので基本的には内科的なSTD(性病)ですが、同じジャンルとしては感染力の強いB型肝炎、それ程強くないC型肝炎が仲間です。

因みに性病の古典的代表格の梅毒に関しては、そのクリニックでも年に1~2人位が”疑い”程度です。

いわゆる淋病(淋菌性尿道炎)や非淋菌性(主にクラミジア)尿道炎はクリニック全体で週に1~2人に見られます。それもどちらかと言うと”素人”で目立ちます。淋菌やクラミジアは男性の場合は典型的な尿道炎を呈し排尿痛が強いので大抵の男性は泌尿器科に飛び込みますが、女性の場合は性器の解剖学的違いからどちらも精々膣炎の症状で案外本人は気が付かないケースが多いですね。
これは蛇足ですが、最近はSEXがポルノ並みに多様となり特に女性の咽頭部から淋菌やクラミジアが検出され、通常の尿道炎より抗生剤の治療に抵抗性が強いのが悩みです。
by 通りすがり (2012-07-25 11:48)
============================
風俗店は客に移したという噂が広がったら、店がつぶれるので、管理は案外しっかりしているようです。東京でもやはりその手の店では定期的に検査を受けさせていた事実を知っています。

危ないのは若い人で性行動の活発な人、そして海外へ出かけて遊んでくるおじさんたちがアブナイ。
HIVの陽性者は人口比率では米国の10分の1程度なのかもしれません。

先生のデータは90年代初頭の話ですか?
いまでもそう変化がなければ若者には朗報です。
脅かしすぎましたかね。

>これは蛇足ですが、最近はSEXがポルノ並みに多様となり特に女性の咽頭部から淋菌やクラミジアが検出され、通常の尿道炎より抗生剤の治療に抵抗性が強いのが悩みです。

AVをみてセックスを覚える若者が増えているので、当然そうなるでしょうね。あんなものを見てセックスの本道と勘違いする若者が増えるのは情けないですが、現実です。
米国流の性文化一色なのはいただけません。
日本にはその手の文化がしっかりあるので、そっちの勉強をする若者が増えてほしいものです。
by ebisu (2012-07-25 12:24) 
============================
うぅーむ。。。
by Hirosuke (2012-07-25 15:20) 
============================
たしかにドキドキしました。
たかがフォークダンスですが・・・
面白い話しはいくつかありますがコメント欄でもかけませんね。わかるひとにはわかってしまいます。(笑い)

素人のほうがいまはアブナイ。
検査もせずに滅茶苦茶にやりまくっている人はいますから。
そういう人たちからは距離を置いたほうが無難でしょうね。

ヘルペスはなかなか根治しませんし、クラミジアは蔓延しているといったほうがいいのでしょう。
不特定多数の人と関係した場合はその都度検査したほうがいいでしょう。

「保険を使うと親にバレル」というのはリアルですね。若くて体が丈夫だと、「自然治癒」するケースもあるのでしょうね。もちろん感染拡大に一役買ったり、悪化する場合も。
by ebisu (2012-07-25 22:46)
============================


にほんブログ村 地域生活(街) 北海道ブログ 根室情報へ
にほんブログ村 


#2459 10/17⇒10/19 ジャパンタイムズ記事紹介  Oct. 23, 2013 [高校・大学生のためのJT記事]

 秋が深くなると気温はどんどん下がり冬が近づく。昨夜9時半頃の気温は7.9度、二日続けて同じだ。そのうちに平野部に初雪が降る。
 女房殿が20尾980円のサンマを買ってきたので、毎日サンマが食べられる。根室のサンマは活きがいいからうまい。少し大きいのは150円/尾する、水揚げ量が昨年の6割というから刺身用の大きなサンマの値段が下がらない。安くて美味い旬の秋刀魚が食べられるのはこの上ない幸せ。

 ところでジャパンタイムズがニューヨークタイムズと業務提携して紙面の様子ががらりと変った。一面左端の細い蘭に主要な記事のサマーライズが載っていたのだが、なくなった。日付の位置も変り、小さくなった。何より気に入らないのは日曜版がタブロイド版になってしまったこと。紙面のデザインが変ったのは、時間がたてばなれるのだろう。ぶつぶついっても仕方なし、まあ、変化を受け入れよう。ナカミは同じだから。

「本提携により、The Japan Timesは2013年10月16日からInternational New York Timesとセットで発行され、「The Japan Times / International New York Times」という名称の一つの商品になります。」

 抱き合わせ販売になって購読料が値上げされたから、定期購読者にとっては迷惑な話だが、しかたがない。 いくつか記事を紹介するので、URLをクリックして読んでみたらいい。定期購読者が減るのではないか?インターネット時代になり、英字新聞は購読者を減らしている。なかなかむずかしいようだ。

------------------------------------------------
 最初は台風26号による大島の被害の記事だ。

'Typhoon leaves 18 dead on Tokyo isle, in metro area'
http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2013/10/16/national/typhoon-leaves-17-dead-on-tokyo-isle-metro-area/

------------------------------------------------

 二つ目は、米国政府のデフォルト騒ぎ、辛くも避けられたが、財政問題はなにひとつ解決していないから、問題の先送りだ。米国は財政問題が足枷となって、いままでのような好き勝手な行動ができなくなる。財政赤字拡大に歯止めがかけられる米国は日本に比べるとずっと健全だといえる。

'Congress ends U.S. shutdown, avoids default'
http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2013/10/17/world/congress-ends-u-s-shutdown-avoids-default/
------------------------------------------------

 三つ目は水銀問題に関する社説だ。水俣病を引き起こした水銀の使用と貿易を制限する国際会議が10月10日に開かれた。

'Pre-emption of mercurial hazards'
http://www.japantimes.co.jp/opinion/2013/10/17/editorials/pre-emption-of-mercurial-hazards/
------------------------------------------------

 四つ目。10/15にニューヨークタイムズが小泉純一郎氏の原発廃炉発言をとりあげている。この記事は、JT紙の社説の下にぶら下がっていた。このあたりが業務提携の余波か。

'Fukushima politics'
http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/15/opinion/fukushima-politics.html?_r=0
------------------------------------------------

 五つ目は19日付けジャパンタイムズ一面の記事から。
 放射能汚染水観察用井戸から汲み上げた地下水が突然に61から6500 Bq/Lに濃度がハネ上がった。地下水は深刻な汚染が進行している。高濃度の地下水が数ヵ月後には海へ流れ出す。いままでに比べると100倍の量ということになる。いまのところとめようがない。

'Water radiation soars at Fukushima No.1'
http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2013/10/18/national/water-radiation-soars-at-fukushima-no-1/

Strontium readings spike 6,500-fold in one day

Water radiation soars at Fukushima No. 1

JIJI, AFP-JIJI

Radiation levels in groundwater under Tokyo Electric Power Co.’s Fukushima No. 1 nuclear plant are soaring, Tepco said Friday after taking samples from an observation well.

Tepco said 400,000 becquerels per liter of beta ray-emitting substances such as strontium were detected in water sampled Thursday from the well located some 15 meters from a storage tank that leaked about 300 tons of highly radioactive water in August.

The level of becquerels, a record high for water in that well, was up 6,500-fold from the 61 becquerels found Wednesday.
 以下省略
------------------------------------------------


 最後に紹介するのは、高校生や大学生のみなさんが関心をもつであろう記事。就活ストレス(job hunt stress)が大学生を自殺に追いやっているという記事だ。

 こんな世の中おかしい、おかしければ変えよう、いまこそ世直しの学生運動をすべきときではないのか?
 団塊世代は全共闘世代ともいわれたが、世のため人のためと思って動く若者が極端に減ったように感じる。そのことが回りまわって、若者たち自身の首を絞めている。既成社会に鋭い異議申し立てをするのが若者のセンス、気力のない若者のなんと多いことよ。

http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2013/10/18/national/job-hunt-stressing-students-making-them-suicidal-poll/

 'Job hunt stressing students, making them suisidial: poll'

Tormented by the difficulty of landing a position and unfair practices by prospective employers, 1 in 5 college students contemplate suicide during the job-hunting process, a poll of 122 students conducted in July by the nonprofit group Lifelink found.

The Tokyo-based group conducted two surveys, on 121 students in March and 122 in July, on the stress associated with the job hunt, spurred by recent government statistics pointing to a marked increase in suicides among people in their 20s. Only the students in July were asked about suicide.

According to National Police Agency statistics on suicides in 2012, the total number of suicides in Japan has shown a downward trend over the last 15 years, dipping below the 30,000 mark for the first time last year to stand at 27,858.

.....以下省略
------------------------------------------------


にほんブログ村 地域生活(街) 北海道ブログ 根室情報へ
にほんブログ村


#2427 JR北海道と地球温暖化に関する記事 Sep. 30, 2013 [高校・大学生のためのJT記事]

 記事を三本ピックアップしました。量が多いので段落ごとのは解説しません。読みたい人だけ読んでください。段落ごとに解説する記事はカテゴリ「時事英語公開講座」のほうとりあげます。ジャパンタイムズは楽しい記事が満載です。大学生になったらキオスクに売っていますから、週に1度は買って読んでください。根室のJRのキオスクにはおいてません。

 北海道JRの事故が多発して問題になっています。線路の不良箇所も発表するごとに数字が大きくなっていく。一体どうなっているの?と、たまにしかJR北海道を利用しないebisuも心配になった。JRがなくなったら困る。
 JRは平成25年度3月決算で335億円の営業損失を出しています。ところが9.8億円の経常利益です。
 ここにはからくりがあります。旧国鉄を解体したときに受け取った財産が7000億円近くあり、そのうちに一部を国の関係機関へ貸し付け、3.7%もの利息を受け取っています。つまりいまでも「迂回」して税金を投入しているのです。受け継いだ資産を取り崩したり、まともではないやり方で税金投入して、帳尻を合わせています。民間の会計基準では赤字なのに、公的会計基準では黒字に化けます。黒字なら経営改善なんて必要ないでしょう、そういうことです。
 こういうイージーなことをすると経営改善がなされなくなります。JR北海道はわが町の市立根室病院にそっくりです。市立根室病院は昨年約17億円もの赤字を出していますが、根室市の一般会計からその分を補填して帳尻合わせをして、公的会計基準では黒字です。こんなことをやっているからいつまでたっても赤字は減らないどころか、前市長時代の2倍に膨らむというとんでもないことになっています。今年度の赤字は病院新築によって減価償却費負担が増えるのでさらに膨らみ20億円を超えるでしょう。
 どちらも絵に描いたような放漫経営。税金投入しすぎると、経営改善がなされなくなるのはJR北海道も市立根室病院も一緒です。(市立根室病院がなぜ放漫経営なのかは近々具体的に根拠を挙げて取り上げます)
 でも、すぐにはよくなりません、それなりの理由があります。基本に返って問題を一つ一つ解決していかないといけないのです。1年で変えられるような魔法はないのです。高い志と専門的な能力が必要になります。

 商業科や事務情報科の生徒は決算書が読めるだろうから実物で腕試ししてごらん。
*JR北海道決算資料
http://www.jrhokkaido.co.jp/corporate/kessan/25/pdf/00_jrhokkaido.pdf

**「持参金で穴埋め(JR北海道決算公告から)」 ブログ「情熱空間」より
http://blog.livedoor.jp/jounetsu_kuukan/archives/6835772.html

 二番目の記事もJR北海道ですが、こちらはジャパンタイムズの社説です。

 三番目の記事はIPCC、地球温暖化問題です。「地球温暖化95%の確実性」が話題の中心になっています。人為的な要因により95%の確率で温暖化が起きているという結論ですが、そもそもこの95%はなにかということ。
 統計学的説明はありませんが、IPCCは統計学的な分析をした結果95%の信頼性で人為的な要因が地球温暖化に関係していると結論付けています。
 高校生は数Cを選択する人はほとんどいないでしょうが、説明が少しあります。「母平均の推定」のところに「信頼度95%の信頼区間」の説明があります。教科書を友だちあるいは先輩に見せてもらったらいいでしょう。
 全国模試を受験している生徒は標準偏差±1.96の範囲内に95%のデータが入ると説明すればおおよその見当がつくでしょう。偏差値では30.4~69.6の範囲です。

 道立高校の授業時間を7時間にして、7時間目を選択授業とすべきだとebisuはときどき書いています。それは文科系でも大学へ進学すれば統計学という科目があるからです。社会人になってもさまざまな分野で統計学が応用できます。これを理解できるかどうか、あるいは使えるかどうかは案外大事なのです。数Ⅲも数Cも物理も文科系には必要です。相互乗り入れできるように、そして学力エリートを積極的に育てるために、7時間目の選択授業という機会の提供はやるべきです。文科省は「国策」として考えてほしいと思います。

 数Cをとらなかった人でも、大学へ進学すると1年生の教養科目の統計学で「カイ2乗検定」「t検定」「F検定」など推計のやり方がでてきます。実際にEXCELを使って問題演習をしますよ。IPCCの地球温暖化記事を読む場合でも、そうした知識がベースにあったほうがいいことは言うまでもないでしょう。
 前置きはそれくらいにして、地球温暖化の記事を読んでください。
 


http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2013/09/25/national/track-defects-exceed-260-at-jr-hokkaido/
==========================

Track defects grow to 260 at JR Hokkaido

Railway rushes to patch track problems that date back to '85

Kyodo, JIJI

Hokkaido Railway Co. said Wednesday it has found 170 more unaddressed track defects, bringing to 267 the total uncovered by an investigation into a derailment last week.

The new defects may include some that have been there since 1985, when changes were made to the maintenance rules drafted by the Japan National Railways following its privatization.

JR Hokkaido said all of the defects, including the newly disclosed ones, had been repaired by Wednesday morning.

In the meantime, Norihiro Goto, chairman of the Japan Transport Safety Board, said his inspectors found the tracks at the site of the last Thursday’s freight train derailment were as much as 37 mm wider than normal, compared with 25 mm in June.

But he also said the board couldn’t determine whether the new deviation, which is almost double the allowable limit of 19 mm, was caused by the derailment.

・・・・・

==========================



http://www.japantimes.co.jp/opinion/2013/09/28/editorials/wheres-the-sense-of-duty/
==========================
 

Where’s the sense of duty?

Hokkaido Railway Co. (JR Hokkaido) on Sept. 22 announced that it had failed to carry out track repairs quickly enough at 97 spots across Hokkaido. To make matters worse, JR Hokkaido announced three days later that track irregularities were found at an additional 170 spots.

At these 267 spots, tracks had widened beyond the safety limit. In some cases, such tracks were left unrepaired for nearly a year. Although JR Hokkaido said it had finished necessary repairs for the first 97 spots by Sept. 22, it is clear that something is basically wrong with the company.

Earlier this year, the company experienced a series of fire-and-smoke incidents involving limited express trains. One wonders whether officials and employees of JR Hokkaido have a clear sense of duty to protect the lives of passengers.

According to JR Hokkaido’s rule, the width between two rails must be 1,067 millimeters. If the track width becomes 14 or more millimeters wider than the standard in a straight section and 19 or more millimeters wider in a curved section, repairs must be carried out within 15 days. But the company failed to follow this rule at many spots.

Of the 97 spots dealt with by the Sept. 22 announcement, 49 were on main lines, some of which carry limited express trains running at speeds of up to some 130 kph. Forty-eight spots were on sidetracks used to let trains pass each other.

On Sept. 19, a cargo train derailed on the sidetrack at Onuma Station on the Hakodate line. JR Hokkaido admitted that no repairs had been done since October 2012, when track irregularities were found there. The 49 probelm spots on main lines were left unrepaired for one to five months.

Track irregularities included not only wider widths but also nonalignment of rail heights. The investigation of the Sept. 19 derailment by the transport ministry’s Transport Safety Board led to the discovery of many more cases of poor track maintenance.

On Sept. 22, JR Hokkaido President Makoto Nojima said that because priority was given to repairs of main lines, repairs of sidetracks were delayed. He even said that there were cases in which the need for repairs was forgotten.

This explanation fails to answer the question of why repairs of main lines were delayed.

A source said that irregularities of sidetracks were rarely reported to the head office, although the results of track repairs on main lines are reported to the head office.

Clearly JR Hokkaido lacks a system to share information on track irregularities and take action immediately. At the very least, it must increase personnel and budget for track maintenance.

First and foremost, all JR Hokkaido officials and employees must remember and abide by the principle that the safety of passengers comes first. But the latest scandal suggests that it will be extremely difficult for the company to get back people’s trust.



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http://www.japantimes.co.jp/life/2013/09/25/environment/what-does-95-certainty-of-warming-mean/
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What does 95% certainty of warming mean?

Gold standard for scientists is just fodder for skeptics

by Seth Borenstein

AP

 

Top scientists from a variety of fields say they are about as certain that global warming is a real, man-made threat as they are that cigarettes kill.

They are as sure about climate change as they are about the age of the universe. And they are more certain about climate change than they are that vitamins make you healthy or that dioxin in Superfund sites is dangerous.

They’ll even put a number on how certain they are about climate change. But that number isn’t 100 percent — it’s 95 percent. And for some nonscientists, that’s just not good enough.

There’s a mismatch between what scientists say about how certain they are and what the general public thinks the experts mean, experts say.

That is an issue because this week, scientists from around the world have gathered in Stockholm for a meeting of a U.N. panel on climate change, and they will probably issue a report saying it is “extremely likely” — which they define in footnotes as 95 percent certain — that humans are mostly to blame for temperatures that have climbed since 1951.

One climate scientist involved says the panel may even boost it in some places to “virtually certain” and 99 percent.

Some climate-change deniers have looked at 95 percent and scoffed. After all, most people wouldn’t get on a plane that had only a 95 percent certainty of landing safely, risk experts say.

But in science, 95 percent is often considered the gold standard for certainty.

“Uncertainty is inherent in every scientific judgment,” said Johns Hopkins University epidemiologist Thomas Burke. “Will the sun come up in the morning? Scientists know the answer is yes, but they can’t really say so with 100 percent certainty because there are so many factors out there that are not quite understood or under control.”

George Gray, director of the Center for Risk Science and Public Health at George Washington University, said that demanding absolute proof on things such as climate doesn’t make sense.

“There’s a group of people who seem to think that when scientists say they are uncertain, we shouldn’t do anything,” said Gray, who was chief scientist for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency during the George W. Bush administration. “That’s crazy. We’re uncertain and we buy insurance.”

With the U.N. panel about to weigh in on the effects of greenhouse gas emissions from the burning of oil, coal and gas, The Associated Press asked scientists who specialize in climate, physics, epidemiology, public health, statistics and risk just what in science is more certain than human-caused climate change, what is about the same, and what is less.

They said gravity is a good example of something more certain than climate change. Climate change “is not as sure as if you drop a stone it will hit the Earth,” Princeton University climate scientist Michael Oppenheimer said. “It’s not certain, but it’s close.”

Arizona State University physicist Lawrence Krauss said the 95 percent quoted for climate change is equivalent to the current certainty among physicists that the universe is 13.8 billion years old.

The president of the prestigious National Academy of Sciences, Ralph Cicerone, and more than a dozen other scientists contacted by the AP said the 95 percent certainty regarding climate change is most similar to the confidence scientists have in the decades’ worth of evidence that cigarettes are deadly.

“What is understood does not violate any mechanism that we understand about cancer,” while “statistics confirm what we know about cancer,” said Cicerone, an atmospheric scientist. Add to that a “very high consensus” among scientists about the harm of tobacco, and it sounds similar to the case for climate change, he said.

But even the best study can be nitpicked because nothing is perfect, and that’s the strategy of both tobacco defenders and climate deniers, said Stanton Glantz, a professor of medicine at the University of California, San Francisco, and director of its tobacco control research center.

George Washington’s Gray said the 95 percent number the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change will probably adopt in Stockholm may not be realistic. In general, regardless of the field of research, experts tend to overestimate their confidence in their certainty, he said.

Other experts said the 95 percent figure is too low.

Jeff Severinghaus, a geoscientist at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, said that through the use of radioactive isotopes, scientists are more than 99 percent sure that much of the carbon in the air has human fingerprints on it. And because of basic physics, scientists are 99 percent certain that carbon traps heat in the greenhouse effect.

But the role of nature and all sorts of other factors bring the number down to 95 percent when you want to say that the majority of the warming is human-caused, he said.


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